Phase One Rainbow
Multispectral Imaging Solution
Unveil the Invisible
멀티스펙트럼 이미지를 발견하다
멀티 스펙트럼 이미지(MSI)는 특별한 카메라 기술, 광원과 필터를 사용하여 전자기 스펙트럼에 있는 다양한 파장의 빛을 잡아냅니다.
사람의 눈에 보이지 않는 파장의 빛까지도 촬영해냅니다.
촬영의 결과로 만들어지는 이미지 “스택(stacks)”는 물질과 표면의 분석에 사용되어 판독성, 진위여부, 시기, 재료의 특성과 분포를 결정할 수 있게 합니다.
- Analysis of documents – Readability of text on parchment, scrolls, and paper, often in poor condition is one application.
- Analysis of polychrome surfaces such as paintings – on canvas, wood, stone, and other materials. Applications include non-invasive analysis for conservation work and authentication.
- Analysis of Fabrics of all kinds – such as historic research to determine age and material.
- Police, forensic and crime scene investigation. Analysis for residue of human fluids on fabric, fingerprints, marks from use of weapons, and crime scene evidence.
- Materials characterization and sorting. Applications include quality assurance, research and evelopment of new materials, and analysis for machine vision.
- General: MSI is used to differentiate subject matter based upon the differentiated response from materials with different chemical compositions.
- Non-invasive contactless analysis
- Quick first step for further analysis – Do it once, do it right
- Nondestructive thanks to low energy LED lighting
- Modular and mobile capturing solutions
- The growth of multispectral Imaging applications is based upon the use of new developments within LED lighting, wide spectrum and high-resolution digital camera sensors, as well as conservation methodology.
- LED lighting can be specified to deliver select “slices”, or bands, of the spectrum from UV light, through visible light and into IR light.
- In a darkened studio, LED lighting in combination with filters in front of the camera is used to capture two types of images.
- Images of reflected light: The different light bands enter into the surface of the subject matter and are reflected from different layers. Characteristics are then captured of the visible top surface, and of the layers below, to reveal information about, for example, earlier text scraped away on parchment and palimpsests, paints used, re-touching, underdrawings, state of conservation etc.
- Images of photo-induced luminescence: A given wavelength of light induces energy in the subject-matter and can result in luminescence, showing up as illuminations in a longer wavelength. The term “luminescence” also includes fluorescence. The luminescence is captured by filtering away the reflected shorter original wavelength, by using filters in front of the camera.
- Captured image stacks are analyzed visually or by scientific methods used to discover or enhance content in the subject matter. The calibration steps are based on well-defined standards and targets.
- Scientific methods include libraries for statistical analysis of the stack, typically Principal Component Analysis. Matlab and Paleo Toolbox are two examples of such libraries.
- For visual analysis, Rainbow software has presets according to the CHARISMA project manual made by British Museum in collaboration with EU partners.
Fully Automated 100MP
The Rainbow Multispectral Imaging Solution
Multispectral cameras have been available in the market for many years but the calibration process, as well as the techniques for changing material sizes whilst maintaining consistent images that can be stacked and analyzed efficiently, has been a challenge and created significant overhead.
Phase One has worked with specialists on MSI projects over years. Based upon this experience and learning, we have devised a flexible and easy to handle, yet robust MSI solution with a workflow based on best practices.
The Rainbow capture process is fully automated: simply position the subject matter and press ‘Capture’. The full stack of captures are then made with automated focus, automated “flattening”, automated exposure normalization, and automated alignment to deliver the perfect stack, again and again – with perfect repeatability and stability.
The Rainbow MSI software controls all the elements – focusing the camera, moving the filter carousel on the filter wheel, turning the lights on and off in the correct order and timing, aligning the images, and finally creating the perfect stack.
The iXG 100MP Wide Spectrum camera employs a high-resolution color accurate CMOS sensor and advanced focusing to deliver sharp, reliable and repeatable results through the entire sweep of the light wavelengths involved.
The Wide Spectrum RGB sensor is tailored for multispectral work, with the added benefit of being able to also do normal digitization work “Do it once, do it right”. Just attach the included IR/UV-cut filter to the magnetic holder of the lens, and you are good to go, following Metamorfoze, FADGI and ISO color standards.
The CMOS sensor provides a responsive live-view for quick and safe positioning of subject matter.
To keep out stray light, the camera comes with a custom lens shade tube mounted on the filter wheel.
The iXG 100MP Wide Spectrum camera comes with 72mm and a 120mm lenses and extension tubes, all suited for the wide range of MSI imaging tasks, as well as normal flat copy digitization work.
The RS leaf shutter of the iXG camera guarantees 1 million actuations. Working with the electronic shutter of the iXG camera gives you infinite durability. The precise focusing mechanism of iXG measures distances accurately, and provides for Auto PPI functionality, which makes digitization work at different resolutions quick and easy.
The filter wheel can hold up to five filters. It is configured to support the filtering needs of accurate visible imaging and luminescence imaging, which fits many applications, including the CHARISMA standard manual.
The carousel, which holds the filters is removable and can be configured with any 2” filters for future scientific applications. The factory capture settings can be adjusted to suit different filter configurations. To support different MSI applications, you can simply work with two or more filter carousels.
Rainbow supports two types of LED lights for a wide range of applications:
Multiband DedoLight, delivering narrowband UV, broadband visible light, broadband and narrowband IR. This light is often used for MSI applications related to Art Conservation and to Police Forensics. Recipes for the capture of images following the CHARISMA standard manual are included.
Narrowband EurekaLight, delivers 16 narrowbands of light from UV, through visible to IR. This light is often used for MSI applications related to Document Readability.
The Rainbow MSI solution can be tailored for a wide spectrum of applications. The Phase One Expert team is ready with customer guidance to configure the best solution for a given application. Advice is backed up with online demonstrations and sample imaging from the Phase One MSI demo center in Cologne, Germany.
For feasibility studies, smaller projects, and operational support, Phase One offers workshops in which specialists can take the customer through the basics of MSI, and the capturing of relevant samples, directed at the MSI projects in question.
Solution at a Glance
Multispectral Imaging in Use
The National Gallery of Denmark
The National Gallery of Denmark owns a painting acquired hundreds of years ago through the Danish Royal Family. The painting has been inspected and analyzed several times to determine its origin and creator, without success. In the fall of 2019, the painting was analyzed again including the use of wide spectrum photography at a high-resolution with a sequence of different lighting, including UV light, visible light in reflectance and photo-induced luminescence, and IR light. The IR image disclosed the painted signature “BRUEGHEL 1562” in the upper right corner. Authentication of a Pieter Bruegel the older masterpiece was well under way.
The Royal Library of Denmark
The Royal Library of Denmark holds collections of handwritten letters and records from the former Danish colonies in Tranquebar, India (1620-1845) and St. Croix, the West Indies (1672-1917). Many of these documents are faded and decayed by age, moisture, and bugs. In 2017 samples from the collections were captured using Multispectral Imaging and the results included the recovery of readability and the appearance of watermarks in the paper.
Police and Forensics
Many disciplines of MSI analysis are applied within Police work. Here is an example of gunshot residue discovered by photo-induced IR luminescence.
The Rainbow MSI Solution
Phase One Rainbow at a Glance
1. Flexible and Mobile Capturing Solutions with iXG 100MP Wide Spectrum camera system, filter wheel, and flexible lighting options of Multiband DedoLight for visual analysis (CHARISMA method) and Narrowband EurekaLight for statistical analysis.
2. Fully automated high-resolution capture workflow, including all relevant calibration stages and the full capture Stack.
3. One button repeatable, accurate and simple workflow with Phase One Rainbow Software which delivers the Perfect Stack of normalized images according to the chosen lighting method (Multiband or Narrowband).
4. Designed for Multispectral as well as for High volume standard digitization. Easy switch by use of a magnetic IR filter holder placed on the lens.
5.Ultimate Image quality throughout the spectrum, from UV (365 nm), through visible, into IR (ca. 1050 nm), with:
• iXG Wide Spectrum, 100Mpixel, high dynamic range CMOS-sensor
• 72mm and 120mm iXG lens line with extension tubes
• One million guaranteed actuations with Phase One Reliance shutter, and option for infinite Electronic Shutter actuations
6. Responsive Live View for fast and accurate positioning of the subject-matter.
7. Phase One MSI Knowledge Center provides Network of Multi spectral affiliates, Phase One experts and support specialists to bring best practice to any potential customer or project.